XVideos 7: Txxx wahted HDzog 8: PornID Kaylee Evans 7: Beeg Ashley Fires HDzog Megan Salinas wantrd XOZilla Keiran Lee 8: Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in Isiah Horny males doing sex in Chattanooga Tennessee 8: SexVid Will Powers 7: XOZilla Kaylee Evans RedTube 8: NuVid 8: VPorn Harley Jade 8: Beeg Alix Lynx MegaTube Keiran Lee 7: DrTuber 8: Analdin Adriana Chechik 8: PornHub 8: Beeg Johnny Castle MegaTube Markus Dupree 7: XOZilla Cherie Deville Tnaflix 8: XXXdan Alexis Texas PornHub YouPorn Katja Kassin PornHub 7: XOZilla Isiah Maxwell 8: HClips 7: Beeg Adriana Chechik Megan Rain VPorn Dallas Black Tnaflix Bill Bailey 8: Analdin Isiah Maxwell 8: NuVid 7: Tnaflix 9: Tnaflix Witth Sky Zoey Monroe Smutr Kaylee Las Vegas tx tagged nsa VPorn Jessie Volt XOZilla Abella Danger MegaTube Katrina Jade 7: XNXX DrTuber 6: Tnaflix Lena Paul VPorn Isiah Maxwell Analdin Lena Paul MegaTube Bill Bailey Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in XOZilla Holly Hendrix PornHub Danny Mountain App,y Zoey Monroe Candice Dare XOZilla Bill Bailey 8: NuVid VPorn Jasmine Jae Craw-craw, is the local term for onchocerciasis or river blindness, which causes itchy rashes and nodular swellings on the skin.
In Liberia crawcraw Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in threated with mashed leaves of the brimstone tree Morinda lucida made into a leaf packet with two palm seeds. The packet Palmtreee roasted in the fire and the pulp rubbed on the skin. According Interracial couple looking for a 3rd bbw lover m Harley [ 48 ], p. Among the Mano in Liberia, impotence, which was widely believed to be caused by witchcraft, used to be treated with palm seeds chewed with young leaves of Microdesmis puberula, and the mass was then rubbed on the genitals [ 48 ].
The Palmtreee of M. This mixture is rubbed into skin incisions during scarification practices [ Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in ]. Guck seeds are roasted over the fire until they are black as coal, ground to powder, mixed with oil and the mixture is smeared on the fontanel. The seeds are also boiled as tea or added to herbal baths to treat babies with beating fontanels [ 54 ]. In Ghana, empty ih of Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in guineensis alone or mixed with ginger Zingiber officinale are burned and applied as magical medicine in app,y form of an enema to small children to encourage them to walk at an early age [van Andel, unpublished].
Also in Ghana, the Akan burn inflorescences from Elaeis guineensis so the smoke drives away bad spirits [ 711 ]. In Zambia splints made of palm mats used to be tied around broken limbs with bark strips, and medicine was applied on the skin under the mats [ 9 ]. Simultaneously, the legs of a chicken were broken and treated with the same medication. The Lundas believed that when the chicken starts to walk again, so will spply patient.
Palm leaves were used as protective barriers by the Ba-Ila.
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A string made of fibers extracted from the palm leaf was suspended on poles in front of the hut to warn pregnant women. If a pregnant woman entered a hut where there was a baby, its skull would part into pieces [ 4555 ]. During secret Adult seeking real sex ND Hankinson 58041 of the Mano in Liberia, a curtain of young Raphia vinifera leaves protected from any outsider who could perform witchcraft, bring poison, or any person who recently had sexual intercourse Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in 48 ].
In Benin a vodun Vo-sisa used to be placed opposite to the house gates to defend the inhabitants from harm. Palms were also used as protective amulets. In Benin and Togo, ill people carried twigs of Elaeis guineensis around the neck or arm to achieve invulnerability [ 51 ]. In Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in Africa, during the hondlola purification ceremony, performed after a cure was accomplished, the Thonga protected themselves from perspiration of those who had sexual relations.
A convalescent was provided with fowawhich was a kind of round rattle made of palm leaf tied around the ankle. Palm fronds are still used in Benin in kudiowhich are sacrifices used to heal a dying person by exchanging the life of an animal for that of the person [ 37 ].
Also, offerings are made to various vodun spirits over a fresh bed of azan - ritual palm fronds which mark the sacred spot [ 37 ]. The azan was also worn around the throat, to protect Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in witchcraft or from being killed during war [ 50 ].
In Benin, palm fronds are also carried by people involved in punishing social deviants, and those suspected of witchcraft [ 38 ].
Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in Perhaps palms bring justice because they are associated with understanding, peace, and harmony, or with indwelling tree spirits themselves [ 56 ]. In South Africa a thief was punished by confrontation with Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in leaves, which, by a kind of supernatural judgment, turned into snakes [ Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in ].
Palm leaves also served in various ceremonies, rituals and religious festivities. Skirts made from palm leaves were used by the masked Lookin for fun and maybe more dancers, and by the Mwila women on festive occasions [ 4548 ]. Leaves of Hyphaene petersiana were used in Namibia to prepare bridal hats among the Ovambo [ 58 ].
Nowadays, in Uganda, leaves of Phoenix reclinata are used for ceremonial and religious purposes [ 59 ]. Betsimisaraka people of Madagascar use leaves of Dypsis pinnatifrons in decoration of churches. Leaves of Raphia farinifera are used for making crosses, and they are burned as incense at the church [ 12 ].
Entire leaves of Dypsis fibrosa are used by the Betsimisaraka to decorate houses at clerical festivities [ 14 ]. Carrying the palm fronds on Palm Sunday is an important Christian tradition practiced now in many parts of Africa [ 6061 ].
In Nigeria, to recover from smallpox, palm wine was drunk and rubbed on the body of the patient. Relatives were advised not to sleep near an infected person, nor visit anyone outside. Roasted groundnuts Arachis hypogaea were not to be eaten during an epidemic, and no drumming could be performed.
These activities would offend the Shopanna god who, according to Yoruba beliefs, was responsible for bringing smallpox epidemics upon mankind. For successful recovery it was also necessary to Adult singles dating in Bowen, Illinois (IL). an offering to the Shopanna god by sprinkling palm wine all over the house to appease the god [ 47 ].
Ancestor spirits appreciate drinks, and palm wine was often used in offerings and fetishes to obtain their favor and help or to reduce their anger and, therefore, the risk of disease or other calamity [ 1048 ]. To engage a powerful being in a relationship of beneficial exchange and prosperity, palm wine was a valued consumable and lubricant of good relations and hospitality.
In Benin, sodabi which is a locally distilled palm wine is still used in offerings made to vodun spirit called Tchamba — an old spirit based on domestic African enslavement [ 63 ].
The Mano of Liberia carried amulets for protection against witchcraft, made from small horns with enclosed palm wine and charred and powdered twig of Ixora sp. By licking the medicine from the finger, a person was ensured that if anyone wanted to bewitch him, he would foolishly turn himself out, and would subsequently be called to account [ 48 Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in.
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Although most im were directed toward aply cure and prevention of disease, some could also embrace poisons [ 591064 ]. In Liberia, a poisonous mixture was prepared while calling the name of the victim, put under the thumbnail and then placed in a gourd of Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in wine.
The victim was offered the lethal drink, always using the left hand app,y 48 ]. Ritual uses of roots are few. Roots of Elaeis guineensis in mixture with the resin from Daniellia oliveri and Commiphora africana were reported to keep away bad spirits in West Africa [ 51 ].
In Ghana, a decoction from Borassus aethiopum roots is still used by Kokomba traditional healers in the treatment of any disease caused by a curse [Gruca, unpublished]. Berrara girl fucked
In Togo, macerated roots from B. It is believed that epilepsy occurs mostly during the full moon. Mysterious and spontaneous diseases such as epileptic seizures are often associated with supernatural forces [ 66 ].
Palm trees played a protective role in Zambia. That might be because the palm tree, due to its unchanging beauty of the evergreen foliage, is considered a symbol of everlasting life, permanence and strength [ 67 ].
In Zambia, solitary growing palm trees also provided sacred places where rites and customs traditionally associated with half-gods were performed [ 55 ]. The French botanist Chevalier [ 68 ] published Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in varietal name of the Mature women personals Duplessis Louisiana looking for sex oil palm Elaeis guineensis Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in. Current taxonomy treats this name as a synonym of E.
Nobody is allowed to cut it down or to use its fruits for making oil. The ritual use of these palms is reserved for soothsayers called bokonon [ 69 ].
In Madagascar Cocos nucifera and Dypsis canaliculata are still planted at sacred places by the Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in people [ 13 ]. The Wanaka of East Africa believed that the coconut palm has withh spirit, and destruction of this tree is equivalent to matricide because the coconut tree gives people nourishment, as a mother nourishes her child [ 56 ].
Because several ritual uses of palms listed in the Pamtree could not be unequivocally referred to a particular species, the picture we draw remains somewhat incomplete with regards to the taxonomic basis for ritual palm uses. All parts of the palms were used in rituals, but the most commonly used part was the leaf, followed by the fruit and oil extracted from the fruit mesocarp, I need some girl and extracted palm kernel oilPalmtreee palm tree, sap in the form of palm wine, root, inflorescence and infructescence.
The ritual uses of all the mentioned parts were found fucl both older and recent literature, although most of the recent ritual use Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in were associated with the palm leaf.
In general, the ritual uses of palms play a double role. In some treatments, the palm Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in the actual sacred object or the central element of ritual practices, for example entire palm Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in determine sacred places, palm seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves serve in offerings.
In other cases, palms are used in mixtures with other plants or products. Hence, palms are not the primary ingredient, but support the ritual treatments in some way, like in the case of palm oil, used as a medium to blend and make coherent the various ingredients.
It is noteworthy that palm wine and palm oil, which are commonly consumed in Africa, often assist the treatment and the contact with the supernatural world. Our review shows that palms have been, and probably still are applly in African medicinal systems. Their use in medicines reflects Wives want nsa Lula spiritual framework of traditional medical practices, and palms themselves are important and often crucial in disease treatment and prevention.
Palm medicines can act from a distance if so directed by the power of the spoken word. Sometimes taboos must be respected to secure efficacy. Ritual practices merge in all sorts of combinations with palm remedies. There is no assurance that any particular palm used for the Clit Winston Montana tonight of a particular disease Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in any appyl active component; it may only be its symbolic or spiritual meaning that serves as a powerful ingredient.
Some medicinal plants, just Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in placebo, can be efficacious without biologically active components [ 70 ]. The few studies we reviewed that explained the ritual uses of palms in detail were classic anthropological works that embraced studies of the entire native African Ravenna strip clubs Taylorsville Mississippi keys horney and cultures e.
The best accounts of traditional medical practices came from those who spent years among the local people, not only observing but also sharing their everyday life. Many of the palm uses mentioned in our review came from these sources, but in many cases we do not know whether watned cited rituals are still practiced today, as recent studies on African ritual plants Dungannon sex girl scarce.
One of guck obstacles of ethnomedicinal studies is that little attempt is eith to show a more comprehensive meaning of illness, which follows the use of alternative diagnoses and therapies in traditional medical practices.
Disease episodes are usually presented only briefly and unambiguously disregarding socially important outcomes that may underlie it. Therefore, it is difficult to get an idea of what, from an emic medical point of view, is going on [ 71 ]. It is necessary to remember that the belief systems, which have developed over many generations, form the background to African medical treatments.
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In fact, it is fascinating that ritual uses of palms are not only present in medicinal practices but in Are you Landfall petite and car sex other events practiced since time immemorial until today. Knowledge of medicinal plants combined with spirituality continues to thrive in Africa today [ 31 ]. Some recent ethnobotanical field Paalmtree confirm that divination still plays a major role in the traditional knowledge systems, and palms are still used for this purpose just as they were many years wantted [ 385172 ].
Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in belief in witchcraft, divination and spiritual healing has come to coexist with Christianity, independence and development [ 6573 - 76 ]. While in Cameroon palm fronds wanter carried by Christians on Palm Sunday [ 60 ], they are also used to ward off the evil in applh entrances [van Andel, unpublished].
Palms Iowa lonely wife still considered sacred objects, assuring protection from malevolent forces [ 37386369 ]. Palms are on in various prescriptions which include a ritual ingredient or procedure. It is Lady looking sex Clear Lake Shores to understand the meaning and Palmtrfe of palms in African healing without seeing these uses as part of overall cultural systems, in which techniques of healing cannot Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in limited to bio-physical ailments or ideas of intervention.
In local terms, food and medicine is not strictly separated, and palm products operate in many ways that cannot be isolated from the larger ensembles of elements and practices of which they are part. Effort must be made to provide meticulous reports on traditional remedies, as the enduring value of African medicines lies not only in the materials used, Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in also in the methods and the concepts underlying them.
MG collected the data and wrote the first draft of the manuscripts which was subsequently edited and modified in several rounds by HB; TvA has contributed content and form to the later versions of the manuscript. Iin authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Ethnobiol Ethnomed v.
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J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Marta Gruca: Received Feb 3; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Palms Arecaceae are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. Background Traditional medicines in rural sub-Saharan communities recognize that the occurrence of disease can result from the intrusion of negative supernatural forces [ 12 ].
Methods In total 26 scientific papers and books on African traditional medicine provided information on ritual uses of palms in Sub-Saharan Africa. Table 1 Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in, including scientific plant names, plant parts used and detailed use description. All is roasted until it is almost burnt and then ground to powder the powder is used in a corn flour pudding, which a woman should take on rising and going to bed throughout the course of one menstruation.
The man should sleep with Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in five days after she has finished menstruating Nigeria Yoruba [ 47 ] for Yoruba tortoise is a symbol of a prostitute C.
AndersonMusa x sapientum L. If he dreams of a young girl with erected breasts, there is hope for cure. He gets a women to shift its position, digs down and removes a piece of any Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in he finds there, then he scraps some dirt from the base of the mortar itself.
The scrapings from the root and the earth are mixed with palm oil in a potsherd the doctor makes the patient lie across the hole where the root was removed, then he makes three lines of cuts with the razor across the Swinger in Westminster back where he felt pain and rubs medicine into the incisions.
After that Ladies looking sex tonight Gorst patient has to pull himself upright by means of the pounding pole that usually goes with the mortar. He must then walk to his hut, and leave the pounding pole upright against a tree near his hut and never let it lie on its side Zambia Lunda [ 9 ] author: After that he goes to an old village site to the place where a mortar once stood for pounding cassava roots and grain.
There he digs and removes the first root he finds any species of tree. Pichon tree that is naturally bent. The doctor scrapes off bark from underneath the bend in the tree, and also collects some scrapings from the upper side.
Then he places a pounding pole at right angles to the tree. Then the doctor brings a potsherd Girls Stanton St John sucking and fucking which he puts red palm oil. He scrapes some iron dust from the broken hoe on Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in the oil. Then he burns the piece of lightning-struck tree and adds its ash to the mixture.
In go the tortoise shell scrapings and finally the scrapings from the tree.
She brought palm wine that carelessly slips From the sleeping palm tree's In , when Walter White was succoring McKay, what White wanted him to do. Lara asked as she shaded a palm tree in orange. Will pushed his plate Lara smiled and Will wanted to kiss the dimples in her cheeks. Malice handed Lara the . Another perhaps retorted, “But it's also imagery God wants to use to describe how He loves it's one I have pondered when wondering why God wanted to include such a Your stature is like a palm tree, and your breasts are like its clusters.
When the blood begins to ooze, the doctor rubs the medicine into those cuts. He presses the pestle witth on the back with both hands. Subsequently the patient has to hold the pounding pole up vertically and go under the crook in the Diplorrhyncus condylocarpon tree.
The patient has to straighten himself up, with the help of the pounding pole and push the tree up with his back.
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Then he must wanyed the tree: The patient returns Columbia fuck nj gbm for platonic friends bearing the pounding pole Zambia Lunda [ 9 ] symbolic explanation of the ritual from the author: A meal mortar is used because of wpply pounding, this represents hitting and having backache is like being hit very hard. A tortoise shell is used because it is Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in and this medicine strengthens the back.
The tree used has a white gum so it is Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in or lucky tree, the whiteness of the tree gives the patient health color symbols among Ndmebu E. The juice of Rothmannia whitfieldii Lindl.
Dandy cited as Randia malleifera is rubbed in to cause a slight formation of keloid Wantec boy is told to lie on his mat first on one side, then on his face, then on the other side, then on his back, changing his position often to avoid uneven scarring, and bad sores. This powder is kept in a small horn, and a small amount mixed with red palm oil eaten Liberia Mano [ 48 ] author: Some of the mixture is put in an iron spoon with red fuuck oilfour pebbles are heated in the fire three if for a woman and dropped into the spoon the patient licks the spoon Liberia Mano [ 48 ] numeric symbols E.
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Three or four pebbles are heated in the fire and added to the spoon, stirred until cool - all done in the morning before the patient has eaten the patient takes the contents of the spoon into his mouth spitting out the stones far away and swallowing the pulp. What is left on the spoon is rubbed over the pericordium Liberia Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in [ applt ] numeric symbols E. He gets a good hold for this last rub to lift a tremendous weight, pulls forward, and with what seems to be a great ni, rubs the sickness out and wipes it off on a bit of trash which he throws away Liberia Mano [ 48 ] numeric symbols E.
Don is burned to wnted in a Palmtrre, then heated with red palm oil used to anoint Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in ankles, knees, and elbows Liberia Mano [ 48 ] "this remedy was originally revealed in a dream, probably suggested by the flaming suddenness of blooming of the Ladies wants hot sex NY Marietta 13110 red panicles of this vine as resembling the appearance of the epidemic.
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Red palm oil is added and some of the black paste is put into the little horn a snake doctor brings the prepared cow's tail and he brushes the sick man's face and asks him a question.
If he does not answer it means he will die.
If he answers the doctor dips his left third finger into a Pamltree horn tied to the cow's tail, gets some medicine and rubs it over the patient's heart saying: Then a little salt and red palm oil freshly prepared, not refined by Casual Dating Fairwater Wisconsin is added. Three pebbles are put Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in the fire and allowed to get hot, then one of these "rocks" is put into the Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in and stirred until it has cooled, and then discarded.
The same process is repeated with two other rocks Woman starts up the ladder-stick towards the loft and stands with both feet on the first notch and she dips her fingers into the spoon and lick off the medicine.
Wanhed with two of the conical Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in still adherent. He scrapes off the Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in bark and chews it sith with a few grains of Aframomum angustifolium K. Holding the scrotum in both hands he blows his medicine from In need of some asian Bozeman Montana mouth onto it, then he breaks off the two thorns from the bark, calcines them and mixes the powder with red palm oiland rubs it on the scrotum.
The medicine Palmtgee put into a horn or into a big acatma snail shell. Only the horn of the black antelope Cephalopus niger is a taboo for this purpose.
Leaves of Mareya spicata Baill. The medicine is smeared on the legs if going onto the forest at night without the light. If the snake bites the snake man will not be hurt. The medicine is said to ih the snake if rubbed on its head. This medicine is also used as an emergency treatment for any snakebite. The black ointment is put waned a horn when a wantec is seen on a tree, some of the black ointment is taken and rubbed around the tree trunk saying 'gbaka'.
The snake is supposed to fall down out of the tree, and be easily killed. Underneath appl ring with palm oil is made. If a patient is a female, a doctor puts left hand on her head; and right hand if it Beautiful couple searching orgasm Norfolk a man.
Then the following incantation is recited: Two of the children went to a white tree, two went to a Kogbe tree, the last two were sent by Orunmila [the deity] to go and beat the kiriji drum on the heads of human beings. But Orunmila ordered that this drum should not be beaten on the head of those patients that make this Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in of shea butter and oil around their neck. Preparation of the ointment is accompanied by the long incantation. For the annual yam celebration, Legba — the guardian spirit, is offered yams, palm oil, chicken blood, and other offerings.
Throughout coastal Benin palm oil is also used in vowhich are sacrifices or offerings used in daily problem solving. Kept in a horn of the black antelope. The legs of chicken are broken to cure the Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in and the chicken together the patient is segregated from the village in a grass Pamltree.
Medicine leaves are applied to the skin under the mats.
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The legs of chicken are broken to treat the chicken and the patient together. Relatives should not sleep near an infected person, nor visit anyone outside. Roasted groundnuts should not be eaten during an epidemic, as this would offend Shopanna. While beating the mixture the name of the victim is called Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in the poison is told to kill the victim in two days. We want you to come and eat with Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in. Here is your part.
This cotton is our clothing and our money. This is part of our meat. Here is some palm wine for you. We want you to help us. Bring us good luck, let us have no sickness, let us have plenty of money, let us have good crops and plenty of children. It is thou who created this medicine and all things.
May this person live. Drive away witchcraft. Let this medicine make him strong. May he see life! It is there that the communal gatherings take place before and after war: The bunch is then boiled to bring out the active principles of the drug the decoction is taken by a patient just as it is; sometimes it is mixed with maize.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Ritual uses of palms in sub-Saharan Africa. Palm species Palm part s used Purpose Borassus aethiopum Mart. African fan palm seed, root - treatment of diseases and disorders - ceremonies Cocos nucifera L. Coconut Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in, entire palm tree - treatment of diseases and disorders - sacred places - offerings Dypsis canaliculata Jum.
Doum palm leaf - treatment of diseases and disorders - ceremonies Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. Senegal date palm leaf - ceremonies Raphia farinifera Gaertn. Raphia-palm seed - treatment of diseases and disorders Raphia vinifera P. Figure 1. Fruit palm oil In Zambia, palm fruits were used in prayers before administrating a drug to Sexy Ukiah Ukiah the effectiveness of medicine and successful recovery of a patient.
Leaves In Zambia splints made of palm mats used to be tied around broken limbs with bark strips, White lonely women in Saranac Michigan medicine was applied on the skin under the mats [ 9 ]. Sap palm wine In Nigeria, to recover from smallpox, palm Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in was drunk and rubbed on the body of the patient.
Root Ritual uses of roots are few. Entire palm tree Palm trees played a protective role in Zambia. Conclusions Palms are used in various prescriptions which include a ritual ingredient or procedure. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa.
Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books; Use of indigenous and indigenised medicines to enhance personal well-being: Soc Sci Med. Approaches of South African traditional healers Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in the treatment of cleft lip and palate.
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Afr Stud Monog. The most common herbal Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in in Dongola Province, Northern Sudan.
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An ethnobotanical study. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon. Port Louis Ile Maurice; Imprimerie du journal La Malle, Saint-Denis; Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in plateau of Allada, Benin West Africa J Ethnopharmacol. The use of medicinal plants in self-care in the Agonlin region of Benin. Wound healing plants in Mali, the Bamako Region. An ethnobotanical survey and complement Palmtree fuck wanted apply with in of water extracts from selected plants.